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ONEMARKQUESTION 20X1=20
1-3Synonyms(1to6)
4-6Antonyms(1to6)
7.Compoundwords
8.Prefixandsuffix
9.Abbreviationandacronyms
10.Clippedwords
11.Phrasalverb
12.Idioms
13.Confusables
14.Foreignwordsandphrases
15.Politealternatives
16.Modalandsemimodal
17.Questiontag
18.Syllabification
19.BritishandAmericanEnglish
20.Singularandplural
21.Sentencepattern
22.Relativepronoun
23.Articles
24.Preposition
25.Matchit(field)
26.Conjunctionorlinkers
27.Blending
28.Gerund
29.Infinitive
30.Definitionoftheword
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
TWOMARKQUESTIONS 7X2=14
1.Poetryappreciation/figureofspeech
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
2.Reportthedialogue
3.Directandindirectspeech
4.ActiveVoiceandpassiveVoice
5.Simple,compoundandcomplex
6.Conditionalclause
7.Degreesofcomparison
………………………………………………………………………………………………..
THREEMARKQUESTIONS
7X3=21
1.Referencetothecontext(poetry)
2.Prosequestionandanswers
………………………………………………………………………………………………..
1.Dialoguewriting
2.Verbalandnonverbalpresentation
3.Describingaprocess
4.Noticewriting
5.Expansionofheadlines
6.Spottheerror
7.Slogan
8.Proverb
9.Roadmapdirection
10.Re-arrangethewods
………………………………………………………………………………………………….
FIVEMARKQUESTIONS 7X5=35
1.Proseparagraphfrom 1to3
2.Poemparagraphfrom 1to3
3.Supplementaryparagraphfrom 1to3
4.Notemaking/summarizing
5.comprehension
6.Jobapplication
7.Generalparagraph
8.Constructionofdialogues
9.Semanticfield
……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Lesson-1
SYNONYMS
Cautious – careful,alert
Disapprove – deny,refuse
Brisk
Engaging – charming,captivating
Humble – poor,inferior
Eager – anxious,enthusiastic
Resistance – fighting,struggle
Persuade – prompt,induce
Scarce – insufficient,deficient
Nobility – dignity,virtue
Shrug – raiseslightlyandmomentarily
Slackened – reduced
Demeanour – appearanceandbehavior
Artless – innocent,guiltless
Hawk – cryingoutloudly
Deserted – uninhabited
Emigirate – takeupcitizenship
Vexation – annoyance
Vestibule – lobby
Charter – short,high-pitchedsounds
Intrude – enterwithoutpermission
Rubble – debris,brokenbricks
ANTONYMS
Cautious x careless
Disapprove x permit
Brisk x slow
Engaging x boring
Humble x superior
Eager x unenthusiastic
Resistance x cooperation
Persuade x discourage
Scarce x adequate
Nobility x dishonour
Lesson-2
SYNONYMS
Disputes – conflicts
Civilization – advancedstateofsocialdevelopment
Stimulated – motivated
Stray – loose
Liable – responsible
Curious – interesting
Controversial- arguable,disputable
Virtues – admirablequalities
Despised – hated
Stimulation – excitement
Optimistic – positive,hopeful
Cauldron – bigpot
Rationing – restricting
Dangling – hangingfreely
Liable – responsible
Mysterious – incomprehensible
Etiquette – sociallyacceptedbehavior
ANTONYMS
Despised x liked
Optimistic x pessimistic
Shallow x deep
Arrival x departure
Sufficient x inadequate
Lesson-3
SYNONYMS
Profession – career
Sorrowful – gloomy
Decency
Destiny – fate
Hijacked – commandeered
Motivation – encouragement
Serious – severe
Significant – important
Consideration- carefulthought
Prevalent – common
Agony – suffering
Perforated – tornordamaged
Ennobles – dignified

  • nobility
    Sophisticated – welladvanced
    Mutilatingsurgery-removaloftissue
    Solace – comfortorconsolation
    Intrepid – boldandstaring
    Finale – climax
    Disfigured – spoiledormarred
    Malignant – harmfullife
    Tumour – diseasedgrowth
    Amputated – cutoffprofound-verygreat
    ANTONYMS
    Rare x prevalent
    Primitive x Sophisticated
    Fiction x fact
    Fearful x intrepid
    Benign x malignant
    Diffidence x confidence
    Boredom x amusement
    Criticize x appreciate
    Lesson-4
    SYNONYMS
    Traverse – tocrossamountainslope
    Rope – linksmembersofclimbingparty
    Cornice – overhangingmassofsnow
    Cwm-arm – chairshapedhollow
    Scrambling – climbinghurriedly
    Wriggle – movewithatwistorturn
    Tantalize – teaseortaunt
    Cramponed – climbingonice
    ANTONYMS
    Narrow x broad
    Crawed. x. raced
    Dragged x pushed
    Hollow x raised
    Firm x soft
    Hoisted x dropped
    Cautiously x carelessly
    Grim x cheerful
    Sink x float
    Persisted x stopped
    Zest x boredom
    Perpetual x temporary
    Lesson-5
    SYNONYMS
    Unequivocally- unambiguously
    Considerable – ample,sizable
    Antiquity – ancientness
    Inscriptions – ahistoricalrecord
    Anthologies – collectionofselectedwritings
    Secular-non – religions,temporal
    Indigenous – native
    Esthetics – senseofbeauty
    Subtlety – distinction,nuance
    Profundity – solidity,sophistication
    Subaltern – subordinate,inferior
    Extensively – broadly,largely
    Universality – acceptance,prevalence
    Myriad – greatnumber
    Facet – feature,character
    Illuminated – lucid,clear
    Undergird – fundamentalsupport
    Conservative – traditional
    Touchstone – astandardorcriterion
    Fecund – fertile
    Preexisting – antecedent,former
    Offshoot – outgrowth,sprout
    Indescribably – indefinably
    Patently – clearly,undoubtedly
    ANTONYMS
    Ancient/classical x modern
    Antiquity x modernity
    Conservative x modern/liberal
    Independent x dependent
    Indigenous x foreign
    Obvious x unclear
    Influence x unimportance
    Merely x greatly
    Lesson-6
    SYNONYMS
    Confusion – mess
    Peril – risk
    Pedestrians – walkonthestreet
    Chaos – confusion
    Anarchy – lawlessnessorrebellion
    Preserved – maintained
    Curtailed
    Tyranny – autocracy
    Insolence – rudeness
    Interfere – hinder
    Contract – commitment
    Indifferent – unconcerned
    Fancy-desire
    Shandy – lemonable
    Ridiculous – comical
    Conventional – normal
    Accommodate- fit
    – reduced
    Consideration– scrutiny
    ANTONYMS
    Anarchy x peace,order
    Confusion x calm,clear
    Conscious x unconscious
    Anarchy x order
    Forbid x allow
    Peril x safe
    Tyranny x democracy
    Preserved x destroyed
    Liberty x slavery
    Ridiculous x serious
    Compoundwords
    Textbook:118
    Whentwowordsusedtogethertoyieldanewmeaning,a
    compoundisformedIce-fall knife-edge wind-proof
    sleeping–bags
    Half-waynever–ending partly-full ice-axe
    Moreexamples
    noun+noun schoolboy/schoolgirl
    noun+verb sunrise
    noun+Gerund carparking/airconditioning
    noun+adjective lifelong/dutyfree
    gerund+noun dancingbird
    verb+noun payday
    verb+Gerund typewriting
    verb+adjective breakfast
    adjective+adjective red-hot
    adjective+noun hotwater
    preposition+noun upstream/downstream
    adjective+verb whitewash
    verb+adverb sendoff
    Mantel+piece = Mantelpiece
    Eye+lashes = Eyelashes
    Water+proof = Waterproof
    Bee+hive = Beehive
    Toll+gate = Tollgate
    Door+knob = Doorknob
    Spinning+wheel= Spinningwheel
    Down-to-earth Well-to-do happy-go-lucky
    up-to-date Long-forgotten Duty-free
    Kitchen-garden Dining-hall Good-for-nothing
    Hand-made Wind-mill Son-inlaw
    PREFIXANDSUFFIX
    Prefix – agroupoflettersplacedbeforetherootofaword
    Suffix – agroupoflettersaddedtotheendingofwords
    TextBook:7,147
    Word prefix suffix
    Patient impatient patiently
    Honour dishonour honourable
    Respect disrespect respectable
    Manage mismanage manageable,management
    Fertile infertile fertility
    Different indifferent differently
    Friend befriend friendly,friendship
    Obey disobey, obedience
    Frequent frequently
    Satisfy satisfaction
    Willing willingness
    Comfort discomfort comfortable
    Resemble resemblance
    Nobile nobility
    Moreexamples
    Word Prefix Suffix
    Honest dishonest honesty
    Manage mismanage management/manageable
    Differ indifferent differently
    Beauty beautiful,beautifully
    Peace peaceful/peacefully
    /peacefulness
    Arrange rearrange arrangement/arranging
    Collect recollect collection/collector
    Approve disapprove approver/approval
    Narrate narration/narrator
    Class classmate/
    classroom
    Fortunate unfortunate
    Respect disrespect
    Rational irrational
    Direct indirect
    Comfortable uncomfortable
    Regular irregular
    Active inactive
    Agree disagree
    Obedient disobedient
    Continue discontinue
    Decent indecent
    Legitimate illegitimate
    Aware unaware
    Finite infinite
    Necessary unnecessary
    ABBREVIATION&ACRONYMS
    TextBook:139,145
    Abbreviation– ashortenedformoftheword
    Acronyms– anabbreviationformedfromtheinitiallettersof
    otherswordsandpronouncedasaword
  1. USA UnitedStatesOfAmerica
  2. UK UnitedKingdom
  3. ATM AutomatedTellerMachine
  4. CVRDE CombatVehicleResearchAndDevelopment
    Establishments
  5. CLRI CentralLeatherResearchInstitute
  6. CPU CentralProcessingUnit
  7. HSS HigherSecondarySchool
  8. MA MasterOfArts
  9. KG Kilogram
  10. MON Monday
  11. FM FrequencyModulation
  12. RPM RotationPerMinute
  13. UPS UninterruptedPowerSupply
  14. CD CompactDisc
  15. DTP DeskTopPublishing
  16. ISRO IndianSpaceResearchOrganization
  17. IIT IndianInstituteOfTechnology
  18. PSU PublicSectorUnit
  19. WWW WorldWideWeb
  20. BBC BritishBroadcastingCorporation
  21. PRO PublicRelationOfficer
  22. UGC UniversityGrantsCommission
  23. BPO BusinessProcessOutSourcing
  24. SBI StateBankOfIndia
  25. WTC WorldTradeCentre
  26. WHO WorldHealthOrganization
  27. NRI Non-ResidentIndian
  28. PC PersonalComputer
  29. UNO UnitedNationsOrganization
  30. ICU IntensiveCareUnit
  31. GST GoodsServiceTax
  32. NLC NeyveliLigniteCorporation
  33. DIET DistrictInstituteOfEducationAndTraining
  34. IAS IndianAdministrativeService
  35. NASA NationalAeronauticalAndSpaceAdministration
  36. PIN PostalIndexNumber
  37. EVM ElectronicVotingMachine
  38. LCD LiquidCrystalDisplay
  39. NEET NationalEligibilityEntranceTest
  40. LPG LiquefiedPetroleumGas
  41. PTI PressTrustOfIndia
  42. USA UnitedStatesOfAmerica
  43. USSR UnionOfSovietSocialistRepublic
  44. AIBA AssociationInternationaleDeBoxeAmateur
  45. IELTS InternationalEnglishLanguageTestSystem
  46. TNPSC TamilnaduPublicServiceCommission
  47. STD SubscriberTrunkDialling
  48. ISD InternationalSubscriberDialling
  49. MBA MasterOfBusinessAdministration
  50. MHRD MinistryOfHumanResourceDevelopment
  51. GPS GlobalPositioningSystem
  52. NCC NationalCadetCorps
  53. NSS NationalServiceScheme
  54. PTA ParentTeacherAssociation
  55. NGO Non–GovernmentalOrganization
  56. ICU IntensiveCareUnit
  57. IIM IndianInstituteOfManagement
  58. MRI MagnetisResonanceImaging
  59. ECG ElectroCardioGram
  60. LED LightEmittingDiode
  61. CPU CentralProcessingUnit
  62. CBSE CentralBoardOfSecondaryEducation
  63. GDP GrossDomesticProduct
  64. LCD LiquidCrystalDisplay
  65. NRI NonResidentIndian
  66. IIT IndianInstituteOfTechnology
  67. ITI IndustrialTrainingInstitute
  68. AD AnnoDomini
  69. AM AnteMeridian
  70. BC BeforeChrist
  71. FM FrequencyModulation
  72. GMT GreenwichMeanTime
  73. GNP GrossNationalProduct
  74. YMCA YoungMen’ChristianAssociation
  75. INTERNETInternationalNetworkOfComputers
  76. AVADI ArmedVehiclesAndAmmunitionDepotOfIndia
  77. LASER LightAmplificationByStimulatedEmissionsOfRadiation
  78. RADAR RadioDetectionAndRanging
  79. SAARC SouthAsianAssociationForRegionalCo-Operation
  80. AIDS AcquiredImmuneDeficiencySyndrome
  81. NASA NationalAeronauticsAndSpaceAdministration
  82. GATT GeneralAgreementOnTradeAndTariffs
  83. CAD ComputerAidedDesigning
  84. TOEFL TestOfEnglishAsAForeignLanguage
  85. GATE GraduateAptitudeTestForEngineering
  86. OPEC OrganisationOfPetroleumExporting Countries
  87. TANSI TamilnaduSmallScaleIndustries
  88. VIRUS VitalInformationResourcesUnderSeige
  89. SALT StrategicArmsLimitationTreaty
  90. HUDCO HousingAndUrbanDevelopmentCorporation
  91. BHEL BharatHeavyElectricalLimited
  92. INSAT IndianNationalSatellite
  93. LAN LocalAreaNetwork
  94. RAM RandomAccessMemory
  95. CAT CommonAdmissionTest
  96. SAIL SteelAuthorityOfIndiaLimited
  97. VAT ValueAddedTax
  98. SAI SportsAuthorityOfIndia
  99. SLET StateLevelEligibilityTest
    100.GAIL GasAuthorityOfIndiaLimited
    101.AIR AllIndiaRadio
    102.AIIMS AllIndiaInstituteOfMedicalSciences
    103.PAN PermanentAccountNumber
    CLIPPING
    Clippedwordsarewordsshortenedbycommonuse.
    1)Telephone phone
    2)Spectacles specs
    3)Suitcase- case
    4)Advertisement ad
    5)Gymnasium gym
    6)Helicopter copter
    7)Refrigerater fridge
    8)Demonstration demo
    9)Handkerchief kerchief
    10) Taxicab taxi
    11) Demarcate mark
    12) Fountainpen pen
    13) Photograph photo
    14) Microphone mike
    15) Laboratory lab
    16) Perambulater pram
    17) Signature sign
    18) Mathematics maths
    19) Examination exam
    20) Gasoline gas
    21) Paragraph para
    22) Fanatic fan
    23) Automobile auto
    24) Hamburger burger
    25) Aeroplane plane
    26) Vivavoce viva
    27) Bridegroom groom
    28) Discotheque disco
    29) Centum cent
    30) Alchemist chemist
    31) Chimpanzee chimp
    32) Photograph photo
    33) Cafeteria café
    34) Gasoline gas
    35) Helicopter copter
    36) Telephone phone
    37) University varsity
    38) Memorandum memo
    39) Influenza flu
    40) Hippotomus hippo
    41) Bridegroom groom
    42) Fanatic fan
    43) Demonstration demo
    44) Refrigerator fridge
    45) Perambulator pram
    46) Aeroplane plane
    47) Examination exam
    48) Demarcate mark
    MOREEXAMPLES
    1.alumni alum
    2.automobile auto
    3.bicycle bike
    4.brassiere bra
    5.brother bro
    6.hamburger burger
    7.omnibus bus
    8.burst bust
    9.buttocks butt
  100. cabriolet cab
  101. cafeteria caf
  102. calculus calc
  103. centum cent
  104. champion champ
  105. chemistry chem
  106. alchemist chemist
  107. cleric clerk
  108. convict con
  109. cooperative co-op
  110. helicopter copter
    cuke
  111. curiosity curio
  112. debutante deb
  113. delicatessen deli
  114. doctor doc
  115. dormitory dorm
  116. drapery drape
  117. examination exam
  118. fanatic fan
  119. facsimile fax
  120. influenza flu
  121. refrigerator fridge
  122. gabble gab
  123. gasoline gas
  124. alligator gater
  125. graduate grad
  126. gymnasium gym
    1.market mart
    2.mathematics math
    3.memorandum memo
    4.amend mend
    5.microphone mike
    6.mistress miss
    7.modern mod
    8.pantaloons pants
    9.penitentiary pen
  127. pepper pep
  128. percolate perk
  129. perquisite perk
  130. telephone phone
  131. photograph photo
  132. turnpike pike
  133. airplane plane
  134. popular pop
  135. professiona pro
  136. professor prof
  137. promenade prom
  138. earthquake quake
  139. referee ref
  140. hackney hack
  141. hippopotaus hippo
  142. flatiron iron
  143. jetaircraft jet
  144. laboratory lab
  145. limousine limo
  146. lubricate lube
  147. revolution rev
  148. scramble scram
  149. spectacles specs
  150. disport sport
  151. stereophone stereo
  152. distill still
  153. submarine sub
  154. coattails tails
  155. taxicab taxi
  156. teenager teen
  157. necktie tie
  158. trigonomey trig
  159. triumph trump
  160. tuxedo tux
  161. caravan van
  162. university varsity
  163. veteran vet
  164. veterinarian vet
  165. periwig wig
    45.zoologicalgardenzoo
    DEFINITIONOFWORD
    TextBook:148
    matchthe–icswordswiththeirappropriatemeanings
    1.Linguistics studyoflanguage
    2.Numismatics studyofmoneyandcoins
    3.Electrodynamics studyofelectriccurrentsandmagnetic
    field
    4.Phonetics studyofspeechsounds
    5.Aesthetics studyofprinciplesofbeauty
    6.Genetics studyofgenes
    7.Statistics studyofprocessingdata
    8.Politics studyofgovernmentandusingpower
    9.Aeronautics studyofbuildingandflyingair-craft
  166. Informatics studyofanalyzinginformation
  167. Hydrophobia fearofwater
  168. Claustrophobia fearofenclosedspace
  169. Acrophobia fearofheights
  170. Anglophobia fearofEnglandoranythingEnglish
  171. Agoraphobia fearofplaces
  172. Xenophobia fearofstrangers
  173. Suicide killingofself
  174. Homicide killingofanotherperson
  175. Genocide killingofpeople
  176. Patricide killingoffather
  177. Matricide killingofmother
  178. Infanticide killingofinfants
  179. Fratricide killingofone’sbrotherorsister
  180. Kleptomania strongdesiretosteal
  181. Bibliomania crazeforbooks
  182. Megalomania mentalillness
  183. Pyromania setthingsonfire
  184. Squandermania. practiceofspendingmoney
    extravagantly
  185. Insecticide usedtokillinsects
  186. Regicide killingofaroyalfamily
  187. Zelotypophobia fearofusingEnglish
  188. Alcoholmania strongdesireforalcoholicdrinks
  189. Entomologist studiesinsects
  190. Archeologist studiesancientculture
    Pathologist studiesdisease
  191. Musicologist studiesmusic
  192. Paleontologists studiesfossils
  193. Sinologist studieschina
  194. Pessimist negativethought
  195. Optimist positivethought
  196. Teetotaler abstainsfromalcohol
  197. Philanthropist performcharity
  198. Misanthrope dislikesmankind
  199. Sadist enjoysotherspain
  200. Octogenarian inat80-90years
  201. Polyglot speakmanylanguage
  202. Hedonist pursuitpleasure
  203. Misogynist hateswomen
  204. Pugilst fondoffighting
    PHRASALVERB
    TextBook:7,118
    Phrasalverbsarephrasesthatindicateactions.Theyare
    generallyusedinspokenEnglishandinformaltexts.
    1.Cutoff-remove
    Ourwatersupplyhasbeencutoff
    2.Comeupon-meetunexpectedly
    Afeelingofgreatjoyhadsuddenlycomeuponme
    3.Putout–stoporextinguish
    Iputoutthefire
    4.Drawup–arrange
    Thecabdrewuooutsidethehouse
    5.Passout-distribute
    Iwillpassoutcopiesoftheagenda
    6.Takeoff-departfromtheground
    Theplanetookoff
    7.Turnaway-reject
    Medicinebegantoturnawayfrombotanyinthe17thC
    8.Standby-support
    AlwaysIwillstandbyyou
    9.Bankon-dependon
    Iambankingonyourhelp
    Book118
    Turnon–toopen
    Heturnedontheradio
    Tookover–takelead
    Thenewmanagertookovertheoffice.
    Setoff–start
    WesetoffforLondon.
    Putoff-Postpone
    Theyhaveputoffthedanceuntiltomorrow.
    Seeoff – saygoodbyetosomeone
    Stopover- tosayforashortperiod.
    Setoff – start/begin
    Getin – arrive
    Getoff – leave
    Geton – enter
    Getaway– goaway
    Checkin – arriveandregister
    Checkout– paythebillwhenleaving
    Moreexamples
  205. Takeover assumecharge
  206. Takeoff leftthegroundorremove
  207. Wentabout didasaroutine
  208. Wentout stopped,ended,notexistence
  209. Wenton continuewithoutchanging
  210. Keepup maintain
  211. Keepon continue
  212. Keepoff remainatadistance
  213. Keepaway stayaway
    10.Pickup getbetter
    11.Pickon totreatunfairly
    12.Pickover lookthrough
    13.Pickout select,choose
    14.Puton wear
    15.Putoff postponed
    16.Breakin enter
    17.Breakout escape,spread
    18.Breakoff
    19.Breakup shatter
    20.Callon shortvisit
    21.calloff cancel
    22.callupon urge
    23.callfor demand
    24.cutdown kill
    25.cutoff chop
    26.cutup injure
    27.cutshort reduce
    28.cutup slice
    29.Lookinto examine
    30.Lookafter takecareof
    31.Lookout search
    32.Lookover examine/investigate
    33.Pullup catch
    34.Pullback withdraw
    35.Pullon tug/
    36.Pullthrough getthrough
    37.Standby support/wait
    38.Standout oppose/resist
    39.Standup rise
    40.Waitbehind stayafter
    41.Waitedon actasservant
    42.Giveaway present/distribute
    43.Giveup stop/discontinue
    44.Givein yield
    45.Giveout announce
    46.Cordonedoff toprevent
    47.Emanatedfrom issueorspreadout
    48.Fightbackagainst trytocombat
    49.Putupwith tolerate
    50.Quarrelwith oppose
    51.hangaround movewithnoaim
    52.brokeout startedsuddenly
    53.toreup todestroy
    54.pushforward tocontinue
    55.raninto tohitsomeone
    56.eatout tohaveameal
    57.copewith todealwith
    58.figureout tofind
    59.countingon todependon
    60.argueinto toputforthreasons
    61.bagoff tocriticizesomeone
    62.cavein tofalldown
    63.engagein totakepart
    64.handdown togive
    65.huntdown trytofind
    66.nosearound findoutinformation
    67.meltaway fadeordisappearslowly
    68.pileon toincrease
    69.revertto toreturn
    70.Cordonedoff toprevent
    71.Emanatedfrom issueorspreadout
    72.Fightbackagainst trytocombat
    73.Putupwith tolerate
    74.Quarrelwith oppose
    75.hangaround movewithnoaim
    76.brokeout startedsuddenly
    77.toreup todestroy
    78.pushforward tocontinue
    79.raninto tohitsomeone
    80.eatout tohaveameal
    81.copewith todealwith
    82.figureout tofind
    83.countingon todependon
    84.argueinto toputforthreasons
    85.bagoff tocriticizesomeone
    86.cavein tofalldown
    87.engagein totakepart
    88.handdown togive
    89.huntdown trytofind
    90.nosearound findoutinformation
    91.meltaway fadeordisappearslowly
    92.pileon toincrease
    93.revertto toreturn
    Idioms
    TextBook:109,117
    Agroupofwordsinafixedorderthathaveaparticularmeaning
    thatisdifferentfromthemeaningsofeachwordonitsown.
    Waitforadusttosettle situationtobecomeclear
    Get/haveallyourducksinarow preparations/well
    organized
    Fetchandcarry dolittlejobifyouweretheir
    servant
    Dothemaths thinkcarefullybeforedoingit.
    Roundthecorner verynear
    Moreexamples
    1)Oncloudnine extremelyhappy
    2)Aboltfromtheblue expectedevent
    3)Atloggerheads disagreestrongly
    4)Inthepink healthy
    5)Honourbound amoralduty
    6)Attheendofone’stether havingnopower/patience
    7)Putsonairs behavingunnaturallyor
    artificially
    8)Giveapieceofmind totellfranklywhatonethinks
    9)Ashadowofone’sself nothavingthestrength
    10) Allwalksoflife everyaspect
    11) ayellowstreak cowardiceinone’scharacter
    12) onceinabluemoon happenrarely
    13) nippedinthebud cutoffintheearliest
    stage
    14) playingtruant irregular
    15) eleventhhour lastmoment
    16) tookahardline unabletoaccept
    17) atthehelm incharge
    18) indeepwaters bigtrouble
  214. Atone’sdisposal forone’suse
    20.Picksomeone’sbrains usesomeone’s
    ideas
    19) Inbarrenstatements statewithoutvalue
    20) Tobearone’sburdeninsilence toregretorsuffer
    quietly
    21) Toldhimflat expressedopiniondirectly
    22) Holdsgood validatthetimeofdiscussion
    23) Goingtobadtoworse deterioratefurther
    24) Bigway- Onalargescale
    25) Takenaveryhardline notgivingin
    26) Thickandfast inlargenumbers
    27) Makesendsmeet managewiththemoney
    28) Matterofconcern somethingtoworry
    about
    29) Acleanslate apastrecordwithout
    discredit
    30) Atclosequarters verynear
    31) Atthehelm incharge
    32) Breakeven makenoprofitorloss
    33) Feelthepinch feelingunpleasantone’s
    standardofliving
    34) Farandsquare inaffairway
    35) Loudandclear veryclearly
    36) Byandby astimesgoesby
    37) Keepaneyeon watchsomething
    38) Secondchildhood oldage
    39) Turnoveranewleaf newbeginning
    Fillintheblankswithrightidioms
    Referbook:117
    Answers
    a.Fetchandcarry
    b.Dothemath
    c.Waitforadusttosettle
    d.ducksinarow
    e.Roundthecorner
    underlinethemeaningofthegivenidiomatic
    expression
    Answers
    a.breaktheice
    b.icingonthecake
    Confusables/Homophones
    Textbook:6
    Awordorphrasethatiseasilyconfusedwithanotherinmeaning
    orusage
    Distinguishthemeanigofeachpairofwordsbyframingyourown
    sentences
    EmigrateImmigrate
    HeemigratedtoU.K
    Immigrate
    HeimmigratedtoIndia
    Beside besides
    Myschoolisbesidetheriver
    Besides,thoseareanimals
    Judicial judicious
    Eligible illegible
    Heisaneligibleperson
    Thiswritingisillegible
    Conscience conscious
    Hetoldthetruthforhisconscience’ssake
    Heishurtbutstillconscious.
    Industrial industrious
    Trichyisanindustrialcity
    Heisanindustriousman
    Eminent imminent
    Heisaneminentperson
    Hewasimminentdangerofdying.
    Illicitelicit
    Hehadanillicitassociatedwithjai
    Icouldelicitnoresponsefromhim
    prescribed proscribed
    Thedoctorprescribedthismedicine.
    Insomeculturessurgeryisproscribed.
    affect effect
    Mycitywasaffectedbyheavyrain
    Theoveralleffectwasamazing
    aural oral
    Gallondrunkareanauraloffence.
    Hewehaveanoraltest.
    born borne
    ShewasborninLondon.
    Shehasbornehimsixsons.
    Moreexa
    1.Ikepteverythinginmydiaryaboutmyvisittodairy
    2.Theadoptedboyhasnowadapted
    3.Ihadnopeacegavemeapieceofadvice
    4.Theyhaddatesfordessertinthedesert
    5.Thepolicetriedtoelicitwhosellsillicitliquor
    6.Themosteminentscientistwarnedimminentdanger
    7.ThebookhasbeenprescribedforB.Aclassproscribed
    8.Ourprincipalisamanofprinciples
    9.Thestorytoldbythecredulousoldmanisnotcredible
    10.Thosewhohaveillegiblehandwritingwillnotbeeligible
    11.Weselldifferenttypesofcellphone
    12.Birlaisindustriouscansolveindustrialproblem.
    13.Shethrewtherubbishthroughwindow
    14.Themoistureisduetodew
    Fillintheblankswithsuitablehomophonesof
    confusables
    Wallet – valet
    Fairy – fiery
    Medal – meddle
    Wait – weight
    Yoke – yolk
    Grown – groan
    Earn – yearn
    Hoard – horde
    Desert – dessert
    Night – knight
    Sweet – suite
    Plain – plane
    Might – mite
    Quite – quiet
    Completethefollowingwithappropriatewordsfromthe
    box
    Textbook:148
    Night/knight scent/sent/cent
    stationary/stationerylead/lead reign/rain/rein
    band/bannedbows/boughs sell/cell pass/pause/paws
    present/present
    1.Mymotherboughtanexpensivewatchasabirthdaypresent
    Interim temporarily
    Adieu goodbye
    Alias otherwiseknownas
    Sanseyessansteeth without
    Proforma forthesakeofform
    Protégé dependent
    2.Everybodyacceptedthefactthatovereatingcouldeasilylead
    toobesity
    3.Inthemiddleages,peopleweretrainedtobecomeaknightata
    youngage
    4.Akshika’sbrotherplaysthebugleinhisschoolband
    5.Theweatherisfineandtheairisfilledwiththescentoflemons
    6.WhatasplendidreigntheemperorAlexander’smighthave
    been.
    7.Humanshavefoot,animalshavepaws
    8.Theyknowhowtoselltheirmobilephonesonline.
    9.Thettoday 10.Thecarswerestationaryinthetrafficjam
    11.Itisnoteasyforhimtotiebowsinhisshoelaces.
    Foreignwords
    ManyforeignwordsandphrasescommonlyusedintheEnglish
    language.Wemaynotrecognizethemasforeign.
    Cognito indisguise
    Tete-a-tete anintimateprivate
    conversation conversation
    Linguafranca acommonlanguage
    Elite thebestofagroup
    Inmemoriam inmemoryof
    Alibi accuseclaiminghis
    presence
    Bonhomie good-naturefriendliness
    Nouveauriche rich/acquiredwealth
    Déjàvu previousexperience
    Verbatim words
    Faitaccompli somethingalreadydone
    Defacto actual/real
    Versus against
    Vivavoce aspokenexammination
    Bonafide genuine
    Sinedie withoutadatebeingfixed
    Resume summary
    Statusquo thesituation(or)stateof
    affairsasitisnow
    Toto totally
    Enmasse asawholegroup
    Rapport acloserelationship(people
    understand)
    Liaison coordinationofactivities
    Bonvoyage sayinggoodbyeandwishing
    agoodluck
    Via through
    Exgratia nolegalobligation
    Adhoc particularpurpose
    Primafacie atfirstsight
    Incamera secretsession
    Euphemism/PolitiveAlternative
    1.Housewife homemaker
    2.Toilet restroom/lavatory
    3.Fat big-boned/pleasantlypulp/fullfigured
    4.Policeofficer peaceofficer
    5.Lavatory restroom
    6.Slowlearners latebloomers
    7.Canepunishment corporalpunishment
    8.Poor economicallymarginalized
    9.Crippled differentlyabled
    10.Barber hairdresser
    11.Died passedaway
    12.Blind visuallychallenged
    13.Handicap physicallychallenged
    14.Abortion pregnancytermination
    15.Unemployment betweenjobs
    16.Cheap ecconomical
    17.Jail correctionalfacility
    18.Retarded mentallychallenged
    19.Oldage goldenage
    20.Sick ill
    21.Lawyer attorney
    22.Beggar homelessperson
    23.vomit blowchunks
    24.bald follicularchallenged
    25.overweight portly
    26.short verticallychallenged
    Modalauxiliaries
    Modals meanings/function
    Can ability,possibility
    Could ability,possibility
    Will futurity,willingness
    Would willingness,habitualactioninthepast
    Shall futurity,suggestion
    Should necessity,expectation,advisability
    May permission,possibility
    Might permission,possibility
    Must compulsion,certainty,necessity,prohibition
    Semi-modal
    Usedto discontinuedhabit
    Dare challenge,boldness
    Need necessity,obligation
    OughtTo duty,moralobligation
    TextBook:12
    Task1
    1.Hecandriveacar
    2.Therichshouldhelpthepoor
    3.Itmayraintoday
    4.Thecandidatesmustanswerfiveoutoftenquestions.
    5.Howdareyouopenmybag?
    6.TajudeenwillfinishthisworkbyMonday.
    7.MayIgotoschooltoday.
    PREPOSITIONS
    Book:44to46and216
    Aprepositionisawordusedtolinknouns,pronouns,orphrases
    tootherwordswithinasentence.Prepositionareusuallyshot
    words.Theyaernormallyplaceddirectlyinfrontofnouns.
    8.Iwishyoucouldtellmethetruth.
    9.Poonancouldnotcatchthebusyesterday.
    10.Peoplewholiveintheglasshousesshouldnotthrowstones
    11.Youneednotgotothemarket.
    12.Wouldyouhavetakenallthistroubles?
    13.Youmustbejoking.
    14.Itriedtoclimbupthetree,butcouldnot.
    15.Himadasransofastthatshecouldwinthegoldmedal.
    16.Youcanleadahorsetowaterbutyoucan’tmakeitdrink.
    17.Iwouldliketohaveacupoftea.
    18.Mygrandfatherusedtovisitthetemplewhenhewasyoung.
    Task:2
    1.Yououghttohelptheneedy.
    2.IfIwereyou,Iwouldnotbehavelikethat.
    3.Ishallnevertellalie.
    4.Myunclemighthavereachedbynow.
    5.Thepatientiscritical.Hemustbetakentohospital.
    6.IusedtoplayhockeywhenIwasastudent.
    7.Youmustnotattendtheclass.
    8.Hemightcometoday.
    9.Youmustfollowthetrafficrules.
    10.Hewillplaythematch.
    11.Youneednotwastetimeonit.
    12.Hadthedoctorcomeintime,hewouldhavesavedthepatient.
    1.Yuvanhasbeenplayingbadmintonwellsince2014.
    2.Yuvanhasbeenplayingbadmintonforthepastfouryears.
    3.Mybrotherlivedinthemountainsabovethelake.
    4.Isawahelicopterflyoveralake.
    5.Herheadwasbelowthelevelofthetable.
    6.Achildplaceshistoysunderablanket.
    7.Aboyranunderthebridgewhentheriverwasdry.
    8.Amanwalkedalongthesideoftheriver.
    9.Hunterswalkedthroughtheforest.
    10.TherewasamitybetweenJessieovensandluzlong.
    11.Therewasahealthydiscussionaboutcommunalharmony
    amongramesh.
    12.Beforeeatingfood,wecleanourhands.
    13.Aftereatingfood,childrenloveplaying.
    Task:1
    1.Theboyjumpedintoanarrowstream.
    2.AfsarwillmeetmeonFriday
    3.Thetempleisbeside/nearthebank.
    4.Myfriendwillmeetmewithhisbrothertomorrow.
    5.Treeisusuallyagardeninfrontofabanglow.
    6.Yuvanhasbeenstudyingwellsincechildhood.
    7.Atrekkerclimbedoveramountainmeticulously.
    8.Therewasskirmishbetweenmybrotherandsister.
    9.Alaudablethoughtwereapparentamongmanyscholarsina
    conference.
    10.Itiseasytoworkundertheaegisofvisionaryleader.
    Task:2
    ReferBook:45
    Answers
    1.at 2.to 3.in 4.for .5.among
    1.brfore 2.Of 3.for 4.in 5.with 6.
    After7.on
    Prepositionalphrases
    ReferBook:45
    Answers
    1.inseadof 2.inspiteof 3.onbehalfof4.onthewhole
    5.infavourof 6.onaccountof 7.accordingto8.incaseof
    Conjunctionsorlinkers
    TextBook:46
    Choosetheappropriatelinkersfromwithinthebracketsand
    completethesentences.
    1.Icouldnotcompletemypaperintheexaminationbecause
    (because,but)Iwasslowinansweringthequestions.
    2.Itstartedrainingso(yet,so)wecouldnotplay.
    3.(As,if)AsIgotupearly,Imanagedtoreachschoolontime.
    4.Though(Though,whereas)hecommittedamistake.He
    apologizedand(and,since)promisedthathewouldnotrepeatit.
    5.Thisishow(how,what)itmustbedone.
    6.Thevendersawthetrainmovingslowlyfromtheplatform.
    (Therefore,until)Thereforehegotin.
    7.Iwasnotwell,so(but,so)Ididnotattendtheclass.
    8.(If,although)Althoughshecandrive,shetravelsbybus.
    TextBook:216
    Dolphinsareregardedasthefriendliestbetweentheseacreatures. 1.
    among
    Therehavebeenseveralstoriesofdolphinshelpingdrowningsailors. 2.
    about
    Themorewelearnondolphins,themorewerealizehow 3.about
    amazingtheyare,theycareoffthesick,protecttheweakest 4.for
    atdanger,theycommunicateverywellwitheachother. 5.in
    Conjunction
    TextBook:216
    Conjunctionisapartofspeechthatisusedtoconnectwords,
    phrases,clausesorsentences.
    NeitherRamyaisasingernoradancer.
    Ramyaisneitherasingernoradancer.
    a)Scarcelyhadtheworkerssteppedout,thanthebuilding
    collapsed.
    Scarcelyhadtheworkerssteppedoutwhenthebuilding
    collapsed.
    b)No soonerdid the powerresume,when the children
    screamedinjoy.
    Nosoonerdidthepowerresumethanthechildrenscreamed
    injoy.
    c)MyfriendcantypesofastasI.
    MyfriendcantypeasfastasI
    d)Sithahadnootherassignment,butthatofcollectingthe
    data.
    Sithahadnootherassignmentthanthatofcollectingthe
    data.
    e)Rekhacookslikehermotherdoes
    Rekhacooksashermotherdoes.
    f)ProfessorUshaisnotonlyawriterbutanorator.
    ProfessorUshaisnotonlyawriterbutalsoanorator
    g)Yourneighboursarenotsowickedlikeyouthink.
    Yourneighboursarenotaswickedasyouthink.
    Threeyourshavepassedsincemycousinresignedhisjob.
    QUESTIONTAG
    Textbook:79,80&81,217
    Atagquestionisashortquestion.Itiscommonlyusedin
    conversation.
    Pointstorememberwhileframingtagquestions
    Ifthestatementisintheaffirmativethetagittakesitusually
    negative.
    Ifthestatementisnegativethetagittakesisnegative.
    Example
    Isnot is
    Is isn’t
    Task:1
    Addsuitablequestiontagtothefollowing
    1.Thechildrenareveryhappytoday. Aren’tthey?
    2.Youhavenotreturnedmybookyet. Haveyou?
    3.Weenjoyedthetripverymuch. Didn’t we?
    Shallwe?
    5.Mymotherrarelytravelsbybus. Doesshe?
    6.Somebodymustbellthecat. Mustn’tthey?
    7.Anitanevercomeslatetooffice. Doesshe?
    8.Iamalwaysthewinner. Aren’tI?
    9.Don’tcommitthismistakeagain. Willyou?
    10.Thereisapharmacynearthatbusstand. Isn’tthere?
    11.Bacteriacanneversurviveinextremeweatherconditions.Can
    they?
    12.Iamnotassmartasyouare. Ami?
    13.Theboysbrokethewindowpanelastevening.Didn’the?
    14.Leaveswitherduringevening. Don’tthey?
    15.Youshouldaddalittlesalttothebuttermilk. Shouldn’tyou?
    Correcttheerror
    Task:2
    1.Theevildoerscannotcrossthepathoftruth.can’tthey? Canthey?
    2.Thevegetablesinthefridgearestillfresh.aren’tit? Aren’tit?
    3.Thevillageheadunderstoodtheintentionofthepolitician.Doesn’the?didn’the?
    4.Iclaimtobeapersonoffaithandprayer.aren’ti? don’ti?
    5.Theemployeesareseldomallowedtomeettheirboss.aren’tthey?Arethey?
    6.Let’sorganizeatriptoGoa.canwe? Shallwe?
    won’tshe?
    8.Boththesister’shaveleftforCanada.aren’tthey? Haven’tthey?
    9.That’sdefinitelynottherightthingtodointhissituation.isn’tthat?Isthat?
    10.Weneednotapplyforabankloan.dowe? Needwe?
    11.Thechiefguestspokeafewwords.didhe? Didn’the?
    12.Therhinoceroshasahornmadeofkeratin.haven’tthey? Hasn’tit?
    Examples
    Book:79
    1.Mr.ranjithisagreatscholar. Isn’the?
    2.Youcancompletethisprojectinaweek. Can’tyou?
    3.Ahalyawillneveracceptyourroposal. Willshe?
    4.Magathisingswell. Doesn’tshe?
    5.Thesegirlssingverywell. Didn’tthey?
    6.Pleasebringmeaglassofwater. Wouldyou?
    7.Alwaysfollowthetrafficrules. Wouldyou?
    Joinusforlunchtomorrow. willyou?
    8.Don’tevermeddlewithmypapers. Willyou?
    9.Theyoungshouldlearntotakeupresponsibilities. Shouldn’tthey?
  215. Thetoysintheboxarenotnew. Arethey?
  216. Nobodyhasarrivedyet. Havethey?
  217. Everyonewillattendtheparty. Won’tthey?
  218. ThepeacockisthenationalbirdofIndia. Isn’tit?
  219. Thebluefrockwasmoreexpensivethanthepinkone.Wasn’tit?
  220. Somethinghasginwronginthecircuit. Hasn’tit?
  221. Thisisnotyourdad’scar. Isit?
  222. Thereisnotmuchtimeleft. Wasn’t
    there?
  223. Werarelyvisitournativetown.(negative) Dowe?
  224. AjithseldomspeaksEnglish.(negative) Doeshe?
  225. Afewgermscanbeviewedthroughthismicroscope.Can’tthey?
  226. Littledoyourparentsknowaboutthisproblem. Dothey?
  227. Iamaveryhonestandhumblebeing. Aren’tI?
  228. let’scloseoureyesandmeditateforsometime. Shallwe?
  229. Let’sallgotothebeachthisevening. Shallwe?
  230. Neitherofmytwobrothershelpedmeinthatsituation. Did
    they?
  231. Allofusarenoteligibletoapplyforthiscourse. Are
    we?
    QuestionTags
    TextBook:217
    1.Thesechildrenlookveryweakandtired,aren’tthey? don’tthey?
    2.Nobodycanresolvethisissue, can’tthey?
    3.Weseldomspeaktoourneighbors, do we?
    4.Theoldwomansellsdollsmadeofsea-shells, doesn’tshe?
    5.Ihavecapturedsomebeautifulmomentsinmycamera, aren’tI?
    6.Pragathiputthebunchofflowersinthevase, doesn’tshe?
    didn’the?
    8.Iamanexpertincooking, aren’tI?
    9.Let’stakethismattertocourt, canwe?
    10.Don’tforgettohandoverthisfiletomymanager, doyou?
    11.Thepairofshoesnearthedoorisnotyours, arethey?
    12.TheyhavearesortinYearcaud, haven’tthey?
    13.Ourdogscarcelysleepsatnight, doesn’tit?
    14.Youdoalotofsocialservice, don’tyou?
    15.Thereisastadiumnearyouroffice, isn’tit?
    Syllabification

Syllabificationistheseparationofawordintosyllables.

Monosyllable1 example bright
Disyllable 2 example bat-tered
Trisyllable 3 example at-ten-tion
Tétrasyllabe 4 example in-no-va-tion
Pentasyllable 5 example dis–a-bi-li-ty

Hexasyllable 6 example per-so-ni-fi-ca-tion,au-to-bi-o-gra-phy

advantage ad-van-tage intelligent in-tel-li-gent
Particular par-ti-cu-lar dramatic dra-ma-tic
Fantastic fan-tas-tic institution in-sti-tu-tion
Domestic do-mes-tic inspiration in-spi-ra-tion
Daughter daugh-ter astrology as-tro-lo-gy
Demonstrate de-mon-strate president pre-si-dent
Confidence con-fi-dence accident ac-ci-dent
Statistics sta-tis-tics apparatus ap-pa-ra-tus
Entertain en-ter-taincentfacilitate fa-ci-li-tate
Cucumber cu-cum-ber association as-so-cia-tion
biology bi-o-lo-gy Argumentative ar-gu-men-tative
Magnificent mag-ni-fi-cent eccentric ec-cen-tric
Simultaneous si-mul-ta-ne-ousbanana ba-na-na
Establish es-ta-blish stupid stu-pid
Formidable for-mi-da-ble expression ex-pres-sion
Donkey don-key laboratory la-bo-rato-ry
Exterminationex-ter-mi-na-tion Detect de-tect
Alliteration al-li-te-ra-tion appreciation ap-pre-ci-a-tion
Serenely se-rene-ly forceps for-ceps
Electronic e-lec-tro-nic teacher teach-er
BRITISH&AMERICANENGLISH
Textbook:181
BRITISH AMERICAN
1.Pavement sidewalk
2.Pullover sweater
3.waistcoat vest
4.chips Frenchfries
5.flat apartment
6.groundfloor firstfloor
7.underground subway
8.queue line
9.windscreen windshield

  1. indicator turnsignal
  2. Timetable schedule
  3. Post mail
  4. Holiday vacation
  5. Autumn fall
  6. Lift elevator
  7. Nappy diaper
  8. Fully full
    Examples
    1.garbagecan dustbin
    2.grain/maize corn
    3.highway mainroad
    4.janitor caretaker
    5.jelly jam
    6.kerosene paraffin
    7.torch flashlight
    8.lumber timber
    9.pants trousser
  9. pitcher jug
  10. passage corridor
  11. Zipcode postcode/pincode
  12. yard garden
  13. stoplight trafficlight
  14. restroom publictoilet
  15. cot crib
  16. Lavatory restroom
  17. Sweets candy
  18. Bin can
  19. Biscuit cookie,cracker
  20. Film movie
  21. Mobilephone cellphone
  22. Sweets candy
  23. Tin can
  24. Taxi cab
  25. Crisps potatochips
  26. Lorry truck
  27. Petrol gasoline
  28. Underground subway
  29. Tap faucet
  30. Railway railroad
    32
    . Aerial antenna
    33
    . Luggage baggage
    34
    . Druggist chemist
    35
    . Porridge Oatmeal
    36
    . Goods Freight
    37
    . Terminus depot
    38
    . Airplane aeroplane
    39
    . breakman guard
    40
    . car carriage
    41
    . drapes curtains
    42
    . eraser rubber
    43
    . fly
    -over fly
    -post
    44
    . garbagecan dustbin
    45
    . grain/maize corn
    46
    . highway mainroad
    47
    . janitor caretaker
    48
    . jelly jam
    49
    . kerosene paraffin
    50
    . torch flashlight
    51
    . line queue
    52
    . lumber timber
    53
    . pants trouser
    54
    . pitcher jug
    55
    . passage corridor
    56
    . Zipcode postcode/pincode
    57
    . yard garden
    58
    . stoplight trafficlight
    59
    . restroom publictoilet
    60
    . cot crib
    61
    . trainers sneakers
    62
    . puckish hungry
  31. jumper/pullover sweater
  32. university college
  33. Soccer football
  34. Silverware utensil
  35. Label tag
  36. Timetable schedule
  37. Rubbish trash
  38. Bill check
  39. Caravan trailer
  40. Cloakroom coatroom
  41. Enquiry inquiry
  42. Fortnight twoweeks
  43. Fullstop period
  44. Goodstrain freighttrain
  45. Indicator turnsignal
  46. Ladybird ladybug
  47. Match game
  48. Mum mom
  49. Carpark parkinglot
  50. Dynamo generator
  51. Dummy pacifier
  52. Fair carnival
  53. Gallery balcony
  54. Grill broil
  55. Interval intermission
  56. Let lease/rent
  57. Motorway highway
  58. Parcel package
  59. Rubbish garbage
  60. Sofa couch
  61. Tadpole pollywog
  62. Turnover sales
  63. Unittrust mutualfund
  64. Biscuit cookie,cracker
  65. Film movie
  66. Mobilephone cellphone
  67. Sweets candy
  68. Tin can
  69. Taxi cab
  70. Crisps potatochips
  71. Lorry truck
  72. Petrol gasoline
  73. Tap faucet
  74. Railway railroad
  75. Aerial antenna
  76. Luggage baggage
  77. Druggist chemist
  78. Porridge Oatmeal
  79. Chips Frenchfries
  80. Goods Freight
  81. Terminus depot
  82. Airplane aeroplane
  83. breakman guard
  84. drapes curtains
  85. eraser rubber
  86. fly-over fly-post
  87. BRITISH&AMERICANENGLISH (spelling)
    1.Odor odour
    2.Program programme
    3.Parlor parlour
    4.Apologize apologise
    5.Color colour
    6.Check cheque
    7.Theater theatre
    8.Gray grey
    9.Behavior behavior
  88. Humor humour
  89. labor labour
    PLURAL
    Clues-ifthewordendswithum changeintoa
    Singular plural
    1.Datum data
    2.Erratum errata
    3.medium media
    4.Bacterium bacteria
    5.Memorandum memoranda
    6.Curriculum currricula
    7.Stadium stadia
    Clues-ifthewordendswithus changeintoi
    8.Alumnus alumni
    9.Syllabus syllabi
    10.Radius radii
    11.fungus fungi
    12.stimulus stimuli
    13.teminus termini
    Clues-ifthewordendswithex,sisaddes
    14.index indexes
    15.matrix matrixes
    16.hypothesis hypotheses
    17.axix axes
    18.formula formulae
    19.ox oxen
    20.mouse mice
    21.foot feet
    22.tooth teeth
    23.goose geese
    24.child children
    25.louse lice
    26.sheep sheep
    27.fish fish
    28.deer deer
    29.nucleus nuclei
    30.criterion criteria
    31.Phenomenon Phenomena
    32.Fatherinlaw fathersinlaw
    33.Soninlaw sonsinlaw
    Mostsingularnounsformthepluralbyadding-s.
    Singular Plural
    32.Boat boats
    33.house houses
    34.cat cats
    35.river rivers
    Asingularnounendingins,x,z,ch,shmakesthepluralbyadding
    -es.
    Asingularnounendinginaconsonantandthenymakesthe
    pluralbydroppingtheyandadding-ies.
    Examples
    Singular Plural
    40.pennypennies
    41.spy spies
    42.babybabies
    SingularPlural
    36.busbuses
    37.wishwishes
    38.pitchpitches
    39.boxboxes
    Singular Plural
    43.city cities
    44.daisydaisies
    Irregularnouns
    Therearesomeirregularnounplurals.Themostcommonones
    arelistedbelow.
    Examples
    Singular Plural
    45.womanwomen
    46.man men
    47.child children
    48.tooth teeth
    49.foot feet
    50.personpeople
    51.leaf leaves
    52.mousemice
    53.goose geese
    54.half halves
    55.knife knives
    56.wife wives
    57.life lives
    58.elf elves
    59.loaf loaves
    60.potato potatoes
    61.tomatotomatoes
    62.cactuscacti
    63.focus foci
    64.nucleusnuclei
    Singular Plural
    65.oasis oases
    66.thesis theses
    Somenounshavethesameforminthesingularandtheplural.
    Singular Plural
    67.speciesspecies
    68.aircraftaircraft
    SENTENCEPATTERN
    Heplayed SV
    Heplayedcricket. SVO
    Hewasbusy. SVC
    Hemadeherbusy. SVOC
    Hegavemeabook SVIODO
    Heisadoctornow svca
    A-yesterday :AA–athome,yesterday
    Blending
    Smoke+fog = smog
    Travel+catalogue = travelogue
    Electro+execute = electrocute
    International+police = Interpol
    Breakfast+lunch = brunch
    Melody+drama = melodrama
    News+broadcast = newscast
    Helicopter+airport = heliport
    Moterway+hotel = motel
    Lecture+demonstration = lecdem
    Documentary+drama = docudrama
    Education+entertainment = edutainment
    Binary+digit = bit
    Medical+care = medicare
    Electronic+mail = email
    Vegetable+burger = vegeburger
    Education+sateliite = edusat
    Fantastic+fabulous = fantabulous
    Medical+claim = mediclaim
    Wireless+fidelity = wifi
    Technology+wizard = technowizard
    Teleprinter+exchange = telex
    Motor+pedalcycle = moped
    Motor+bike = mobike
    Foreign+exchange = forex
    High+technology = hi-tech
    Internal+communication = intercom
    Information+system = infoys
    Commercial+information= infomercial
    Modulater+demodulator= modem
    Camera+recorder = camcorder
    Formaphrasewitheachofthefollowingpairsofnounsgiven
    below.
    Book:72
    Muscle+pain muscularpain
    Skeleton+system Skeletalsystem
    Nerve+disorder Nervousdisorder
    Digestion+enzymes Digestiveenzymes
    Surgery+instruments Surgicalinstruments
    Agony+experience Agonicexperience
    Glory+victory Gloriousvictory
    Fancy+idea Fancifulidea
    Emotion+song Emotionalsong
    Sense+issue Sensibleissue
    Gerund
    Book:154
    Gerundsarewordsthatareformedwithverbsbutactasnouns.
    Tofindforaverb+ingthatisusedasnoun.
    Underlinethegerundsinthefollowing
    Boysloveplayingcrickek.
    Iloveeatingicecreams.
    Jessieenjoysbotheringothers.
    TextBook:220
    1.Teachmeswimming.
    Teachmetoswim.
    Paintingisaninterestinghobby.
    Task:2
    Usethegerundformofverbinthebracketsandfillinthe
    blanks
    Exercising(exercise)isgoodforhealth.
    Flying(fly)akiteisfun.
    Shopping(shop)ismyfavouritehobby.
    Myfriendwaitedforthemeeting(meet)huckleberryfinnwas
    responsibleforsignaling(signal)
    Moreexamples
    Jumpingisfun
    Mysonenjoysskiing
    Mrs.Kalahasauniquewayofteaching.
    Itisnouseifcrying. Thedancingparrotsentertainedthecrowd.
    Rewritechangingthegerundineachofthefollowing
    sentencestoinfinitiveswithoutchangingthemeaning.
    2.Givingisbetterthanreceiving.
    Togiveisbetterthantoreceive.
    3.Seeingisbelieving.
    Toseeistobelieve.
    4.Ilikereading.
    Iliketoread.
    5.Hemanagedreachingthereintime.
    Hemanagedtoreachthereintime.
    6.Walkinginthesunisharmfultotheeyes.
    Towalkinthesunisharmfultotheeyes.
    7.Stealingisacrime.
    Tostealisacrime.
    8.WhatIhatemostisrunningacrosstraffic.
    WhatIhatemostistorunacrosstraffic.
    9.Sittinghereiswastingtime.
    Tosithereistowastetime.
  90. Exercisingisgoodforhealth.
    Toexerciseisgoodforhealth.
    Fillintheblanksusingsuitablegerunds.
    TextBook:219
    1.MyfriendisgoodatPlayingthesaxophone.
    2.Theydon’tlikeWorkingonSaturdays.
    3.Theystartedlate,sotheywereafraidofmissingthe
    train.
    4.Sheenjoyswatchinghorrormovies.
    5.Walkingonthewallcanprovedangerous.
    6.Drivingatwowheelerwithoutahelmetmayprovefatal.
    7.Wearinguniformtoschooliscompulsory.
    8.Growingtreesisamust,topreventsoilerosion.
    9.SeemaapologizedforCominglate.
  91. Completinganeventsuccessfullyisachallenge.
    Infinitives
    Aninfinitiveisformedaverbbutdoesn’tactasaverb.Itactsasa
    noun,adjectiveoradverb.
    Fillintheblankswiththecorrectinfinitives
    1.Devaforgottoposttheletter.
    2.Thedoctoradvisedthepatientstotakehismedicinewithout
    fail.
    3.Rajeshwenttotheairporttoreceivehisfriend.
    4.Thebearclimbedupthetreetodrinkthehoney.
    5.Theboyswenttotheforesttoseebirds.
    6.Itriedhardtomakebothendsmeet.
    7.Thearcheologistsaretryingtostudytheruinsofkeelady.
    8.Solarenergyusedtogenerateelectricity.
    9.Togetconcessionyouhaveapplywellinadvance.
  92. WehaveplanstogotoLondon.
    ArticlesandDeterminers
    Articles an,an,the
    Demonstrativethis,that,there,these
    Distributive eachevery,either
    Numerals one,two,second,third
    Interrogative WHquestions
    Quantitative some,much,many,few,any,little,none
    Completethefollowingsentencesusingappropriate
    determiners
    TextBook:156
    1.OnlyfewpeoplecanaffordtobuyaflatinChennai.
    2.Sheearnedsolittlethatshecouldnotmakeadecentliving.
    3.Someinformationthatshegaveprovedfalse.
    4.Howmuchsugardoyouwant?
    5.Iamverytiredtoday,asIhadmanygueststoday.
    6.Someofmystudentshavebecomedoctors.
    7.LittledoIknowabouthispersonallife.
    8.Howmanypagesdidyouread?
    9.Somefertilizerusedthesedays’spoilsthesoil.
  93. DuringmystudentlifeIusedtogivelittletroubletomy
    teachers.
    Fillintheblankswithappropriatearticlesordeterminers.
    TextBook:220
    1.Wemetsome/few/manyAmericansattherestaurant.
    2.MonishahasSome/fewfilmsinherhands.
    3.Iamtheeldestinmyfamily.
    4.Thereareonlyfewchocolatesleftforyou.
    5.Canyougetmesomebutter?
    6.Theyhaven’tgotmanyrosesintheirgarden.
    7.Samuelhasn’tgotanyhomeworktoday,soheisplayingcricket.
    8.Pleasegivemea/thenail.
    9.Mymotherisanhonestwoman.
  94. Sheboughtausefulgadget.
  95. Pleasegivemeanicecube.
  96. Weneedsomelightintheroom.
  97. Whyareyoureadingthisbook?
  98. Mybosswantedthedraftofthereportinaday.
  99. Thehand-outisavailableonline.
    Choose thecorrectoptionsandcompletethesentences
    dishonesty.
    9.Oneortheotherofthosemenhas(has/have)lodgeda
    complaint.
  100. Eachleafandeachflowerwas(was/were)strippedoff
    thetree.
    Book:186
    1.Manojwas(was/were)presentalongwithhisparents.
  101. 3.Neitherlekhanorleelahas(has/have)beenselected.
    4.Everyman,womanandchildwas(was/were)happy.
    5.Oneofthemachinesis(is/are)defective.
    6.Anumberofbooksare(is/are)missing.
    7.Sekarorhisbrothershave(has/have)doneit.
    8.Tomakeapromiseandthennottokeepitare(is/are)

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