Chapter 1 Online Guide The Last – NCERT Online Guide Class 12
Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meaning from the context
(i) in great dread of
(ii) counted on
(iii) thumbed at the edges
(iv) in unison
(v) a great hustle
(vi) reproach ourselves with
(i) in great dread of: a feeling of great fear about something that might or will happen in future (for instance here—scolding by his teacher).
(ii) counted on : to trust somebody to do something or to be sure that something will happen.
(iii) thumbed at the edges : to touch something with your thumb or thumbs, for instance here the edges of the old primer.
(iv) in unison : to do or say something at the same time (here repeating the lesson at the same time).
(v) a great bustle : extremely busy and noisy activity, (for instance here tumult before opening of the school).
(vi) reproach ourselves with : to blame or criticise somebody for something that they have done or not done, because you are disappointed in them.
What was Franz expected to be prepared with for school that day ?
Franz was expected to be prepared with a lesson on participles because his teacher M. Hamel had said that he would ask them questions about it.
What did Franz notice that was unusual about the school that day ?
Usually there used to be a great hustle and bustle and noise. But that day Franz noticed that it was all so still, calm and quiet.
What had been put up on the bulletin-board ?
It was put up on the bulletin-board by Germans that only German could be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine in France.
What changes did the order from Berlin cause in school that day ?
The order from Berlin was that only German language would be taught in the schools of Aslace and Lorraine in France. These two districts had passed into Prussian hands. It was the last day of the French teacher M. Hamel in the school. French will no more be taught in the school. So M. Hamel was leaving the school next day. M. Hamel had put on his fine Sunday clothes. The old men of the village were sitting there in the back of the room. It was their way of thanking M. Hamel for his forty years of faithful service. The children now taught the French language and the books written in that language as old friends.
How did Franz’s feelings about M. Hamel and school change ?
Franz felt sorry for not learning his lessons in French any more. His books that had seemed such a nuisance a short while ago, which he found so heavy to carry seemed to him old friends now that he could not give up. Franz’s feelings about his French teacher M. Hamel also were changed. The idea that he was going away, that he (Franz) should never see him again, made Franz forget all about his teacher’s ruler and how cranky or slightly eccentric he was.
The people in this story suddenly realise how precious their language is to them. What shows you this ? Why does this happen ?
In the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871), France was defeated by Prussia led by Bismarck. In this story the French districts of Alsace and Lorraine had been passed in Prussian hands. There was an order from Berlin that only German would be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine.
When the French master M. Hamel announced that it was their last French lesson and he was leaving, these words came as a peal of thunder. Franz and others felt sorry for not learning their lessons in French.
His books like French grammar and history of the saints which seemed a nuisance, a short while ago, looked like old friends now that he could not give up. The old men of the village sitting there in the back of the room had felt sorry about it. The people realised that they must protect the French language – the most beautiful language of the world, the clearest and most logical. The feeling that they would be deprived of learning French made them suddenly realise that how precious their language was to them.
Franz thinks, “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons”? What could this mean ? (There could be more than one answer).
The order from Berlin that only German language would be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine in France had a severe reaction from the people. Though they could not express their grudge openly, yet even little boy Franz felt, “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons” ? When they were having a lesson in writing, there was pindrop silence.
Once some beetles flew in; but nobody paid any attention to them, not even the littlest ones, who worked right on tracing their fish-hooks, as if that was French too. Then on the roof the pigeons cooled very low and little Franz thought that would they make them sing in German, even the pigeons.It shows that though the human beings could be forced to learn a language which is not their own language, yet the birds are free from such pressures. They cannot be forced to sing in a particular way. That way birds are more free than the helpless human beings.
“When the people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison.” Can you think of examples in history where a conquered people had their language taken away from them or had a language imposed on them ?
When the people of a particular place or of a country are forced to be under a foreign rule, they are deprived of the freedom they can enjoy otherwise. If the language of the conquerers is imposed on them or they are forced to ignore or not to learn their own language, they feel enslaved or as if “they had the key to their prison”. There are various examples in history where the conquered people had their language taken away from them or had a language imposed on them.
For instance, India was under the British rule and its states like Pondicherry and Goa were under French and Portugal rule. Consequently, English, French and Portuguese were imposed on the people. British rulers felt that if the education system was changed to produce clerks in India, who could write and speak English, it would be easy to manage the day-to-day affairs.Even after so many years after freedom from the British rule, English is still a link language. That explains the widespread use of English in the countries like Australia or Canada and some African countries like South Africa.
What happens to a linguistic minority in a state ? How do you think they can keep their language alive ?
For example :
Punjabis in Bangalore,
Tamillians in Mumbai,
Kannadigas in Delhi,
Gujaratis in Kolkata.
India is a vast country where so many languages are spoken. Even in some states, more than one vernacular language is spoken. Each and every individual, in a free country, has a fundamental right to speak or write one’s language or mother tongue. But the problem arises when there is a linguistic minority in a state of a country or when the people of a particular country live in other countries.
In such cases, the major problem is how the people can keep their language alive. For example, how Punjabis living in Bangalore or Tamilians living in Mumbai or Kannadigas living in Delhi or Gujaratis living in Kolkata can keep their mother languages alive. They can do so by teaching their children their mother tongue or at least speaking to their children in their mother tongues as far as possible.
Is it possible to carry pride in one’s language too far ? Do you know what “linguistic chauvinism” means ?
One is deeply attached with one’s mother tongue as one is attached with one’s mother. But it is not possible in this global world to confine oneself to his or her mother tongue only. So, it is not possible to carry pride in one’s language too far. Chauvinism is an aggressive and unreasonable belief that our own country or our own language is better than all others.So, ‘linguistic chauvinism’ means that one’s own language is better than all others. Our mother tongue is usually and mostly spoken in our own region or area.
As such we can’t communicate with most of the people if we don’t learn other languages in addition to our own mother tongue. Under British rule, a large number of Indians had to learn how to write and speak in English. Our knowledge of English opened doors to know many modern concepts, which was not possible otherwise.
In the present times, there are many more BPO’s or call centres in India than in countries like China and Russia, who confined to Chinese and Russian. Not only in most parts of the world, the knowledge of English has been beneficial for Indians to communicate outside as well as in their own country. Thus in the present times, it is not possible to carry pride in one’s language too far.
English is a language that contains words from many other languages. This inclusiveness is one of the reasons it is now a world language. For example:
petite – French
kindergarten – German
capital – Latin
democracy – Greek
bazaar – Hindi
Find out the origins of the following words
tycoon – barbecue – zero
tulip – veranda – ski
logo – robot – trek
The origin of the following words is as under :
(i) tycoon : Origin Japanese, ‘great lord’.
(ii) tulip : Origin French, ‘tulipe’.
(iii) logo : Origin Greek ‘logos’ meaning ‘word’.
(iv) bandicoot : Origin from a word in Indian lanugage, meaning ‘pig-rat’,
(v) barbecue : Origin Spanish ‘barbacoa’ meaning ‘wooden frame’.
(vi) veranda : Origin Portugese ‘varanda’ meaning ‘railing’.
(vii) robot : Origin Czech ‘robota’ meaning ‘forced labour’.
viii) zero : Origin Arabic, ‘cipher’
(ix) ski : Origin Norwegian.
(x) trek : Origin South African Dutch ‘trekken’ meaning ‘to pull, travel’.
Notice the underlined words in these sentences and tick the option that best explains their meaning.
a. “What a thunderclap these words were to me !”
The words were
(i) loud and clear
(ii) startling and unexpected
(iii) pleasant and welcome
(a) (i) loud and clear.
b. “When a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison”
It is as if they have the key to the prison as long as they
(i) do not lose their language
(ii) are attached to their language
(iii) quickly learn the conqueror’s language
(b) (ii) are attached to their language
c. Don’t go so fast, you will get to your school in plenty of time.
You will get to your school
(i) very late
(ii) too early
(iii) early enough
(c) (iii) early enough
d. I never saw him look so tall.
(a) had grown physically taller
(b) seemed very confident
(c) stood on the chair
d) (b) seemed very confident.
M. Hamel had said that he would question us on participles.In the sentence above, the verb form “had said” in the first part is used to indicate an “earlier past”. The whole story is narrated in the past. M. Hamel’s “saying” happened earlier than the events in this story. This form of the verb is called the past perfect.
Pick out five sentences from the story with this form of the verb and say why this form has been used
(i) For the last two years all our bad news had come from there – the lost battles, the draft, the orders of the commanding officer and I thought to myself, without stopping, ‘What can be the matter now’ ? (This form of past perfect has been used to indicate earlier past, i.e., bad news put on the bulletin-board indicating what happened in the earlier past over a period of two years).
(ii) I had counted on the commotion to get to my desk without being seen; but of course, that day everything had to be as quiet as Sunday morning.(This form had been used to indicate what used to happen in the earlier past, for instance, hustle and bustle in the class).
(iii) My books that had seemed such a nuisance a while ago, so heavy to carry, my grammar, and my history of the saints, were old friends now that I couldn’t give up.(This form has been used to indicate how Franz felt in the recent past).
(iv) I think, too, that I had never listened so carefully, and that he had never explained everything with so much patience. (This form has been used to indicate how Franz had listened in earlier past and how his teacher used to explain in the earlier past).
(v) Only the desks and benches had been worn smooth; the walnut-trees in the garden were taller, and the hopvine that he had planted himself twined about the windows to the roof.(This form has been used to compare things, trees and creeper as they used to be in earlier past).
Write a notice for your school bulletin board. Your notice could be an announcement of a forthcoming event, or a requirement to be fulfilled, or a rule to be followed.
Notice Board :
D.A.V. Model School
Silver Jubilee Celebration
September 5, 20XX
We are going to organise an inter-school competition in one-act plays on the occasion of Silver Jubilee Celebrations of our school on 17th September, 20XX from 10:30 onwards in School Auditorium. More than 10 schools have already given their approval.
All the students are informed to have a ticket to look at the performance of young artists from various schools.
Get you enrolled with the undersigned.
XII A, President
Write a paragraph of about 100 words arguing for or against having to study three languages at school.
The Importance of Studying Three Languages at School India is a vast country where too many languages are spoken. It is not practically possible to learn all these languages. However, I earnestly feel that if students learn three
languages at school, they can communicate well within India as well as outside it.
First of all mother tongue should be taught at school. Then our national language Hindi should be v taught at schools. The third language which should be taught at schools, I think, should be English. It is not only the lingua franca of the world, but it is also a link language in India -y itself. That is why I think these three languages should be studied at schools of India.
Have you ever changed your opinion about someone or something that you had earlier liked or disliked ? Narrate what led you to change your mind.
About two months back, we had a new neighbour in our colony, Mr. Som Nath alongwith his family. He seemed quite arrogant and snabbish to everybody because he remained self-centred. He rarely talked to anybody. We just saw him going to office in the morning and coming back from office in the evening.
He hardly wished anybody. People of the colony were surprised at his behaviour. I also felt that he did not observe even the basic courtsies, which we learn in our primary school. A few people tried to socialise with him, but he preferred to remain aloof and reserved. Gradually it appeared to us as if Mr. Som Nath did not exist for us.
But one day my opinion about him was changed when my father met with an accident. While coming back from office, Mr. Som Nath saw my father bleeding and in a state of unconsciousness. He took my father to the hospital, informed us immediately and used his good influence to see that my father is treated well. From that day my impression about him was changed.
Who occupied the back benches in the classroom on the day of the last lesson? Why?
Who were sitting on the back benches during M Hamel’s last lesson? Why?
The old men of the village were sitting on the back benches during M Hamel’s last lesson because they were sorry that they had not attended school more often.They also wanted to thank their teacher for his forty years of faithful service and to show their respect for the country that was theirs no longer.
Why did M Hamel write Vive La France’ on the blackboard ?
What words did M Hamel write on the blackboard before dismissing the last class? What did they mean?
M Hamel wrote the words ‘Vive La France!’ in big letters on the blackboard before dismissing the last class. These words meant, ‘Long Live France!’ This shows his patriotic nature.
“We’ve all a great deal to reproach ourselves with”, said M Hamel.
Why does M Hamel reproach himself for his students’ unsatisfactory progress in studies?
M Hamel reproaches himself for his students’ unsatisfactory progress in studies because he „ has given them his own personal work to do during school time. Besides, he also gave them a holiday when he wanted to go fishing. He also tells the villagers that they should reproach themselves for not having learnt their language.
When a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison.”
Can you think of examples in history here a conquered people had their language taken away from them or had a language imposed on them?
Some examples of the native language taken away from conquered people or had a language imposed on them are:
- Portuguese became the language of Angola when it was colonized by Portugal.
- English was imposed on the Celtic people in Northern Ireland when it was conquered by Britain.
- Spanish was imposed on the Basques and the Catalans when their lands were taken over by Spain.
What tempted Franz to stay away from school?
Franz feared a scolding at school as he had not prepared his lesson on participles, on which his French teacher M Hamel was to question the class that day. Besides, the warm and bright weather, the chirping of birds and the sight of the marching of Prussian soldiers also tempted Franz to stay away from school.
Why were the elders of the village sitting in the classroom?
As per an order from Berlin, French was no more to be taught in the schools of Alsace. Therefore, M Hamel, the French teacher, had to leave after forty years of long and faithful service. The elders of the village felt sorry for not learning their language and were present in the classroom to express their respect and gratitude towards him
What shows M Hamel’s love for the French language?
M Hamel had taught the French language in the school- for forty years and was overcome with emotion when he realized that the villagers would not be able to learn it any more. He wanted them to preserve the language with them, thus showing his love for the language
What made M Hamel cry towards the end of his last lesson?
M Hamel cried towards the end of his last lesson because he loved the French language and felt pity for the villagers, as they would not be able to learn their mother tongue any longer.
What was unusual about M Hamel’s dress on his last day in the school?
M Hamel’s dress on his last day in the school consisted of his beautiful green coat, frilled shirt, and a little black silk cap, all embroidered, that he never wore except on inspection and prize days.
Why is the order from Berlin called a thunderclap by Franz?
“What a thunderclap these words were to me!” What were the words that shocked and surprised the narrator?
“What a thunderclap these words were to me!” Which were the words that shocked and surprised little Franz?
The announcement made by M Hamel that there was an order from Berlin to stop teaching French, and that this was their last French lesson, seemed to be a thunderclap to Franz. He would no longer be able to learn French, his mother tongue.
What was the order from Berlin and what changes did it cause in the school?
What changes did the order from Berlin cause in school that day?
The order from Berlin stated that only German will be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. This meant that French would no longer be taught in the school. M Hamel, the French teacher, would have to leave. This also caused the elder villagers to attend the school for the last lesson in French.
What did M Hamel tell them about the French language? What did he ask them to do and why?
M Hamel praised the French language, calling it the most beautiful, the clearest, and the most logical language in the world. He asked them to guard or preserve their language among themselves and never forget or lose it.
What did Franz notice that was unusual about the school that day?
Franz noticed many unusual things about school that day. Usually, when the school began, there was a much commotion, which was missing that day. His teacher, M Hamel had on his ceremonial clothes. But the most unusual thing was that the village people were sitting quietly on the back benches, which were usually empty.
How did M Hamel say farewell to his students and the people of the town?
Towards the end of his ‘Last Lesson’, M Hamel stood up to say farewell to his students and the people of the town. He then turned to the blackboard and wrote, ‘Vive La France’. Then he dismissed the class with a gesture of his hand.
What was Franz expected to be prepared with for school that day?
Franz was expected to be prepared with his lesson on participles. M Hamel, his French teacher, had announced that he would question the class on participles. But poor Franz didn’t know even the first word about them
What had been put up on the bulletin board?
An order that had come from Berlin had been put up on the bulletin board. The order was that from the next day only German would be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The new teacher would join the school from the following day.
Who did M Hamel blame for not giving due attention to their language?
M Hamel blamed the people of Alsace for not giving due attention to their language. He also blamed himself. Often, he had sent the students to water his plants, and when he wanted to go fishing, he just gave them a holiday.
Who did M Hamel blame for the neglect of learning on the part of boys like Franz?
M Hamel blamed himself for the neglect of learning on the part of boys like Franz. He was a little irregular, and took leave whenever he needed it, which reflected on the behavior and studies of the students. He also blamed their parents for not taking interest in their education.
What announcement did M Hamel make? What was the impact of this on Franz?
“This is your last French lesson.” How did Franz react to this declaration of M Hamel?
M Hamel announced that he would be giving them the last French lesson because the orders had come from Berlin to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. Franz was shocked to hear this declaration.
What changes came over little Franz after he heard M Hamel’s announcement?
After hearing the announcement, Franz was very sad and he regretted not learning his lessons, and being deprived of the opportunity to learn his own mother tongue. His books suddenly became his ‘old friends’ whom he could not abandon.
Why was Franz confused? What added to his confusion?
When Franz reached school, he found the entire place unusually quiet, strange and solemn. He was late for school and thought that M Hamel would scold him. But, to his surprise, M Hamel spoke very kindly to him and-invited him in. However, what confused him the most was the presence of the village elders in the classroom.
How did Franz perform when his turn came to recite?
When it was Franz’s turn to recite, he got mixed up on the first words and stood at his place, ashamed. He did not have the courage to look up and face his teacher.
How did M Hamel praise the French language?
M Hamel called French the most beautiful language in the world. According to him, it was the clearest and the most logical language. He wanted the people of France to guard it amongst themselves and never forget it.
How is the mother tongue important?
The mother tongue is the representative of a nation’s true identity and character. It acts as a binding force, creating unity among the countrymen. M Hamel rightly said that when a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language, it is as if they had the key to their prison.
What was M Hamel’s contribution to the school in Alsace?
M Hamel had given forty years of long and faithful service to the school. Though the students found him cranky, he was a true Frenchman at heart, who took immense pride in teaching his mother tongue. He loved the school and wanted the children to love their language.
Franz was able to understand everything that day. Why?
Franz thought that probably he had never paid so much attention in the class, and that M Hamel had never explained everything with so much patience. Perhaps, these were the very reasons that he was able to understand everything that day.
What did M Hamel teach the class in his ‘last lesson?
In his ‘last lesson’, M Hamel taught the class about grammar, then about writing and finally a lesson in history. More than this, he made his students realize the importance of their mother tongue, and taught them to take pride in their language.
How did Franz’s feelings about M Hamel and school change?
Franz was shocked when M Hamel told the students about the order from Berlin and that it was their last French lesson. He forgot about his teacher’s ruler and crankiness; instead, he started liking M Hamel, as he was being separated from him forever. His feelings towards his school changed, as he did not want to give up his books and lessons, seemingly old friends.
Everybody during the last lesson is filled with regret.
Yes, M Hamel is filled with regret because he had not taken enough interest in teaching French, as he often sent students for petty errands and gave them a holiday when he didn’t want to teach. Franz regretted that he had not been learning his lessons, but skipping school for enjoying other activities. He also regretted that M Hamel was going away, that he would never see him again, despite his strictness and crankiness. The villagers regretted that they did not utilize the opportunities given to them for learning French when it was possible; that is why they had turned up in full strength for the last lesson. Thus, all of them regretted that this was their last lesson in French.
How different from usual was the atmosphere at school on the day of the last lesson?
The order from Berlin that only German will be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine henceforth changed the atmosphere at school, as an unusual silence prevailed, compared to the normal hustle and bustle earlier at the start of school every day. M Hamel had changed into a soft-speaking teacher from his harshness and strictness earlier.
M Hamel had also dressed differently, wearing the clothes reserved for inspection days and other important occasions. The whole school seemed so strange and solemn to Franz. But the – strangest thing was that the villagers even attended the school to show respect to M Hamel, as they had realized the importance of their language. Everybody looked sad that it was going to be their last lesson in French.
How did.the order from Berlin change the situation in the school?
The order from Berlin had stopped the teaching of the French language in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The people in the village were saddened by this, so that the children and villagers attending the school were silent and the normal hustle and bustle of the school starting was missing.
Even M Hamel, the French teacher, was not his usual strict self. He was also dressed in his ceremonial clothes, normally reserved for inspection and prize days. However, the most surprising fact was that the villagers, regretting that they did not utilize the opportunities for learning French when it was possible, were occupying all the back benches to attend the last lesson in French. Earlier they had been more concerned about their livelihoods and so had never attended school.
The order from Berlin aroused a particular zeal in the school.
The order from Berlin had stopped the teaching of the French language in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. This shocking development suddenly aroused a lot of zeal in the various people in the story. M Hamel, the French ! teacher, changed his behavior from being a cranky and strict teacher to that of a very kind person, as it would be his last lesson, and he would be going away the next day.
He also taught with more understanding and patience. Franz was not interested in learning the language earlier, but now he suddenly realized what he had been missing and became very attentive in class. The villagers regretted that they did not utilize the opportunities given to them for learning French when it was possible; so they had turned up in full strength for the last lesson.
The people in this story suddenly realize how precious their language is to them. What shows you this? Why does this happen?
When the order had come from Berlin that thenceforth only German would be taught in ? schools, people realized that it was the last day to learn their mother tongue. To show their affection for the language, many elderly people ‘ came to attend school, occupying the last benches, which had usually remained vacant earlier.
Franz regretted not having learnt the participles, when M Hamel suddenly appraised them of the fact that they would become a laughing stock before the Germans. Their language was their identity, the ‘key’ to their prison. The strongest evidence of how important their language became can be taken from M Hamel’s mesmerizing last lesson. Everyone was extremely attentive. Franz too found the lesson quite easy to understand, when earlier he had found the French classes very difficult.
What happens to a linguistic minority in a state? How do you think they can keep their language alive?
For example: Punjabis in Bangalore, Tamilians in Mumbai, Kannadigas in Delhi or Gujaratis in Kolkata.
A linguistic minority in a state cannot exercise linguistic skills like the natives of the state. At the workplace and educational organisations, English / Hindi or any other link language helps a lot to cope with the work and learning process. But, when it comes to understanding the basic norms of the society, in order to socialize, they face linguistic barriers during communication.
To keep their language alive, the linguistic minorities can form small communities where they can celebrate their festivals as per their traditions. They can also continue to speak their native language in their homes and make their children learn the language. They should also try to visit their native places at regular intervals to stay close to their roots.
Is it possible to carry pride in one’s language too far? Do you know what ‘linguistic chauvinism’means?
Yes, it is possible to carry pride in one’s language too far if one is fond of one’s own language at the cost of others. Indifference towards other languages is not healthy in a democracy like India. When the sense of belonging to one’s own language crosses the line between ‘pride’ and ‘being proud’, it becomes linguistic chauvinism.
If people feel good about their languages and traditions, they must have tolerance for other languages too. Everybody has the right to follow the religion as well as speak the language as per their desire.In fact, it is denigrating to distort the names of communities, like, Bongs for Bengalis, Gujjus for Gujratis and so on.
Franz thinks,”Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons?” What could this mean?
After reading the chapter, you realize that man has an intense desire to subjugate others. You feel that in the modern world, there is a strong need for brotherhood. Write an article in about 120-150 words for a national magazine on this.
What will You Conquer? – by Sunil
During the Franco-Prussian war, as related in the story ‘The Last Lesson’ France lost two of its districts to Germany. The Germans passed the order that from now on, only German will be taught in the schools. The imposition of German over French was humiliating. It filled the people with great patriotic feelings. Suddenly, on the roof when the pigeons coo in a low tone, Franz asks himself whether they will make the pigeons also sing in German.
This remark is a Frenchman’s typical reaction to the imposition of learning German. The attitude of the French is full of hate and desperation. This also shows the extent the Germans would go in then- attempts at linguistic chauvinism.The instance in question makes it clear that man has a strong desire to impose his will upon others, to subdue others. This very instinct of man is responsible for tension, turmoil and conflicts in the world. In today’s world, only the feeling of compassion, tolerance and brotherhood towards our fellow beings can lead us towards peace and prosperity.
When he turned to the blackboard, took a piece of chalk and bearing on it with all his might, he wrote as large as he could ‘Vive La France’!” After reading the lesson you begin to feet that the Indian youth lack the spirit of patriotism. Write an article in about 120-150 words on the need of a patriotic spirit amongst the youth in India.
Love your Motherland! – by Sunita
India is the land of people like Mahatma Gandhi and Bhagat Singh, people who devoted their whole lives in serving their motherland. But in modern India, their thoughts have become a shadow of their previous self. The word ‘patriotism’ has faded away from the hearts of the youth. The youth remain so much immersed in their superficial world that they have no interest in or intention of reflecting upon the idea of patriotism.
However, if they can channelize their energy into something positive, India will surely become a superpower, as there is a lot of potential in the youth of our nation. The youth need to tap their limitless energy in the service of the nation and make an effort for the better and bright future of India, our motherland.
“What a thunderclap these words were to me!”. The words were
(a) loud and clear
(b) startling and unexpected
(c) pleasant and welcome
(b) startling and unexpected
“When people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison”. It is as if they have the key to the prison as long as they
(a) do not lose their language
(b) are attached to their language
(c) quickly learn the conqueror’s language
(b) are attached to their language
Don’t go so fast, you will get to your school in plenty of time.
You will get to your school
(a) very late
(b) too early
(c) early enough
(c) early enough
I never saw him look so tall. M Hamel
(a) had grown physically taller
(b) seemed very confident
(c) stood on the chair
(b) seemed very confident